Health & Wellness Increase Energy Pterostilbene

Pterostilbene may be better than resveratrol

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Pterostilbene is a naturally occurring analogue of resveratrol. Pterostilbene is also antioxidant and can be found in grapes and blueberries. It is produced by plants as one of the defense mechanisms to fight off infections [1]. Pterostilbene is believed to posses anti-diabteic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-hypercholesterolemic properties and may prevent cognitive decline. Compared to other stilbene compounds (such as resveratrol) pterostilbene has much better bioavailability.

Effects of Pterostilbene on Glucose Metabolism

Pterostilbene has been shown to play a role in normal glucose metabolism. It is therefore found in some bodybuilding supplements (marketed and patented as pTeroPure®) as insulin secretagogue. This is due to a few animal studies showing beneficial results. One animal study in diabetic rats who were orally administered with pterostilbene (up to 40 mg/kg) for 6 weeks reported significant beneficial effects on glucose balance (56.54% reduction), insulin levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (a marker of chronic hyperglycemia) [2]. This effect is comparable to 500 mg/kg of oral metformin (prescription drug for treating type 2 diabetes) but is less potent in otherwise healthy rats (6.3% reduction) [2]. Another study in hypercholesterolemic hamsters reported a 14% decrease in plasma glucose as compared to the control group after 25 mcg/kg of pterostilbene [3]. Whether pterostilbene can exhibit similar anti-diabetic effect in humans is still unknown.

Lipid Lowering Effect and Cardiovascular Health

Oral ingestion of pterostilbene at 40 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 weeks significantly reduced the elevated serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and LDL-C levels and significantly increased the serum HDL-C in diabetic animal subjects [4]. In hypercholesterolemic hamsters 25 mcg/kg of pterostilbene reduced LDL-C (29%) and increase HDL-C (7%) [3]. Pterostilbene accomplishes this by its ability to activate PPAR-alpha [5,7], which leads to decreased synthesis of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins [6].

High dose of pterostilbene (125 mg twice daily) has also been reported to reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults [7].

Effects on Mental Function

Pterostilbene has been shown to be a potent neuromodulator in aging and those suffering from Alzheimer’s disease [8]. Studies are showing that stilbene compounds, especially pterostilbene, improve the sensitivity of muscarinic M1 receptor (important in a variety of parameters including memory and vascular functioning [10]) in aged animals [9]. In that same study animals treated with high dose pterostilbene improved cognitive performance compared to control group [9]. It seems that improved calcium buffering and increased muscarinic receptor sensitivity are the mechanisms behind improved cognitive performance in aged animals [9].

Pterostilbene and Caffeine Combination for Increased Energy

Pterostilbene can recently be found coupled with caffeine (43% Caffeine , 57% pTeroPure® in co-crystalized form) in some preworkout supplements backed with claims that it provides energy that lasts 8 times longer than normal caffeine. That combination is also claimed to deliver about 30% more caffeine into the blood than ordinary caffeine. No studies are to be found to back that claims.

Side Effects and Toxicity

In vivo studies report negligible toxicity [11]. For 28 days, mice were fed with up to 3000 mg/kg body of pterostiblene which is 500 times the estimated mean human intake [12]. There were no signs of any biochemical toxicity [12].

References

  1. Langcake, P., and R. J. Pryce. “A new class of phytoalexins from grapevines.” Experientia 33.2 (1977): 151-152.
  2. Pari, L., and M. Amarnath Satheesh. “Effect of pterostilbene on hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-and nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.” Life sciences 79.7 (2006): 641-645.
  3. Rimando, Agnes M., et al. “Pterostilbene, a new agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-isoform, lowers plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.” Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 53.9 (2005): 3403-3407.
  4. Satheesh, Marudamuthu Amarnath, and Leelavinothan Pari. “Effect of pterostilbene on lipids and lipid profiles in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.” Journal of Applied Biomedicine 6.1 (2008).
  5. Mizuno, Cassia S., et al. “Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and docking studies of pterostilbene analogs inside PPARα.” Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 16.7 (2008): 3800-3808.
  6. Gervois, Philippe, et al. “Regulation of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism by PPAR activators.” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 38.1 (2000): 3-11.
  7. Riche, Daniel M., et al. “Impact Of Pterostilbene On Blood Pressure and Other Metabolic Parameters In Adults.” Hypertension 60 (2012): A617.
  8. Chang, Jaewon, et al. “Low-dose pterostilbene, but not resveratrol, is a potent neuromodulator in aging and Alzheimer’s disease.” Neurobiology of aging 33.9 (2012): 2062-2071.
  9. Joseph, James A., et al. “Cellular and behavioral effects of stilbene resveratrol analogues: implications for reducing the deleterious effects of aging.” Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 56.22 (2008): 10544-10551.
  10. Joseph, James A., Derek R. Fisher, and Amanda N. Carey. “Fruit extracts antagonize Aß-or DA-induced deficits in Ca^{2+} flux in M1-transfected COS-7 cells.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 6.4 (2004): 403-411.
  11. McCormack, Denise, and David McFadden. “Pterostilbene and cancer: current review.” Journal of Surgical Research 173.2 (2012): e53-e61.
  12. Ruiz, M. J., et al. “Dietary administration of high doses of pterostilbene and quercetin to mice is not toxic.” Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 57.8 (2009): 3180-3186.
  13. McCormack, Denise, and David McFadden. “A Review of Pterostilbene Antioxidant Activity and Disease Modification.” Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 2013 (2013).

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