Adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme and has intracellular role as the energy source for tissues. It is not energy itself, but rather temporarily “stores” energy in its phosphodiester bonds.
As shown in pic. 1 a molecule of adenosine triphosphate contains three phosphate groups. When the third phosphate is cut loose, ATP becomes ADP (Adenosine diphosphate di= two), and the stored energy is released. As muscle undergoes continuous work, ATP synthesis increases in order to keep up with energy demand. To accomplish this, muscles need supply of oxygen and glucose. Muscle performing exhaustive exercise then relies primarily on anaerobic glycolysis(breakdown of carbohydrates w/o oxygen) for regeneration of ATP which results in the production of lactate(symptom: intense pain felt during exercise) and H+(build up of H+ will make the muscle cells acidic).
Pic. 1 – Adenosine triphosphate structure
Rathmacher, John A., et al. wanted to determine if supplemental ATP (Peak ATP®) would improve muscle torque, power, work, or fatigue during high intensity resistance exercise. Sixteen subjects (8 male and 8 female) received either Peak ATP® (400 mg/d divided into 2 daily doses) or placebo for 15 days. High peak torque, low peak torque, and torque fatigue of the leg muscles were measured over the three exercise sets. Analysis of the data showed that ATP supplementation significantly increased low peak torque and decrease muscle fatigue.
Jordan et al.  examined the effects of different doses (high dose = 225 mg; low dose = 150 mg) ATP supplementation on muscular strength, anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity. The high dose taken 75 minutes prior to testing resulted in an increase in bench press strength. They reported no other changes for repetitions to exhaustion. In fact they explained the improvement in bench press as “…a spurious change in treatment differences, rather than one attributable to ATP treatment.”
Current findings may not be sufficient to answer all the questions.
- Kushmerick, M., and K. Conley. “Energetics of muscle contraction: the whole is less than the sum of its parts.” Biochemical Society Transactions 30 (2002): 227-231.
- http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_ATP Retrieved 3. Jan 2013
- www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookatp.html Retrieved 3. Jan 2013
- Bangsbo, Jens, et al. “ATP production and efficiency of human skeletal muscle during intense exercise: effect of previous exercise.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism 280.6 (2001): E956-E964.
Juel, Carsten. “Lactate-proton cotransport in skeletal muscle.” Physiological reviews 77.2 (1997): 321-358.
- Rathmacher, John A., et al. “Adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 9.1 (2012): 48.
Jordan, ALEXANDER N., et al. “Effects of oral ATP supplementation on anaerobic power and muscular strength.” Medicine and science in sports and exercise 36.6 (2004): 983-990.